Total workforce Private sector State and local government Workers Share Workers Share Workers Share All 140,746,900 100.0% 119,728,800 100.0% 17,301,600 100.0% Sex Men 72,283,200 51.4% 63,033,100 52.6% 7,126,700 41.2% Women 68,463,700 48.6% 56,695,700 47.4% 10,174,900 58.8% Race/ethnicity White 86,760,200 61.6% 73,298,100 61.2% 11,301,000 65.3% Black 16,862,400 12.0% 13,716,400 11.5% 2,434,400 14.1% Hispanic 24,591,900 17.5% 21,908,300 18.3% 2,246,200 13.0% Asian or other race/ethnicity 12,532,300 8.9% 10,806,000 9.0% 1,320,100 7.6% Men of color 27,636,000 19.6% 24,441,300 20.4% 2,379,500 13.8% Women of color 26,350,700 18.7% 21,989,400 18.4% 3,621,000 20.9% Not a person of color 86,760,200 61.6% 73,298,100 61.2% 11,301,000 65.3% Age Ages 16–24 19,555,100 13.9% 18,061,300 15.1% 1,292,000 7.5% Ages 25–39 48,576,100 34.5% 42,098,800 35.2% 5,319,600 30.7% Ages 40–54 42,915,800 30.5% 35,357,600 29.5% 6,198,000 35.8% Age 55 or older 29,699,800 21.1% 24,211,100 20.2% 4,492,000 26.0% Educational attainment Less than high school 12,550,400 8.9% 11,950,700 10.0% 539,500 3.1% High school 34,510,900 24.5% 31,134,900 26.0% 2,768,000 16.0% Some college, no degree 31,705,700 22.5% 27,582,500 23.0% 3,237,300 18.7% Associates degree 13,046,300 9.3% 11,106,800 9.3% 1,550,700 9.0% Bachelors degree or higher 48,933,500 34.8% 37,953,800 31.7% 9,206,100 53.2% Family status Married parent 42,616,000 30.3% 35,128,500 29.3% 6,165,600 35.6% Single parent 15,623,200 11.1% 13,424,100 11.2% 1,823,000 10.5% Married, no children 28,292,100 20.1% 23,400,500 19.5% 3,985,500 23.0% Unmarried, no children 54,215,600 38.5% 47,775,700 39.9% 5,327,600 30.8% Household income Less than $25,000 9,909,500 7.0% 8,864,000 7.4% 943,000 5.5% $25,000–$49,999 21,930,800 15.6% 19,432,700 16.2% 2,173,800 12.6% $50,000–$74,999 24,921,400 17.7% 21,425,800 17.9% 2,934,500 17.0% $75,000–$99,999 22,496,600 16.0% 18,951,300 15.8% 2,961,200 17.1% $100,000–$149,999 30,770,500 21.9% 25,303,200 21.1% 4,444,600 25.7% $150,000 or more 30,718,100 21.8% 25,751,900 21.5% 3,844,500 22.2% Poverty status In poverty 8,257,300 5.9% 7,531,100 6.3% 658,400 3.8% 101–200% poverty 18,776,100 13.3% 17,056,100 14.2% 1,497,500 8.7% 201–400% poverty 43,365,700 30.8% 37,389,300 31.2% 5,111,600 29.5% 400%+ poverty 69,406,600 49.3% 56,974,500 47.6% 9,882,900 57.1% Missing poverty status 941,100 0.7% 777,800 0.6% 151,200 0.9% Veteran status Veteran 8,584,500 6.1% 6,335,600 5.3% 1,133,600 6.6% Not a veteran 131,549,900 93.5% 112,804,600 94.2% 16,145,300 93.3% Veteran status n/a 612,400 0.4% 588,600 0.5% 22,700 0.1% Nativity U.S. born 117,037,400 83.2% 98,300,700 82.1% 15,427,600 89.2% Foreign born 23,709,400 16.8% 21,428,100 17.9% 1,874,000 10.8% Citizenship Born citizen 117,034,500 83.2% 98,299,200 82.1% 15,426,600 89.2% Naturalized 11,922,700 8.5% 10,306,500 8.6% 1,296,300 7.5% Not a U.S. citizen 11,789,600 8.4% 11,123,100 9.3% 578,700 3.3%

Source: Economic Policy Institute analysis of American Community Survey microdata, pooled years 2017-2018

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1. ?Author’s calculations using the 2019 Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata.

2. ?Author’s calculations using the 2019 Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata.

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